empirica, together with Dialogic (Netherlands) and the University of Applied Sciences North-Western Switzerland, concluded a study about “policies supporting efficiency and effectiveness of research and innovation systems”. A related policy brief is available for free download from the website of the related framework contract, see. A summary of a workshop about R&I systems and the presentations of this workshop are also available there. The team conducted this study on behalf of the European Commission’s General Directorate Research and Innovation.
The study found that the role of an R&I system in a national economy varies between countries and is highly dependent on its specific characteristics and context. Countries with a higher input in their science system seem to dedicate these resources to quality in human capital and quality output. On the other hand, countries with a high input in their technology system were found to be better intertwined with the science system. Based on available data, there are no apparent relations between efficiency in the science or technology system with the specific set-up of the R&I system. The countries with highest levels of science and technology input and output – Austria, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland – focus on funding public R&D, in contrast to the two groups with less input and output. University-funding in the best-performing group of countries is more often negotiation and contract-based than in the other countries.